Signs include lethargy; refusal to eat; dark red-brown or black urine; pale yellowish gums and mucous membranes at first, advancing to dark muddy brown; increased respiratory rate; rapid heart rate; dehydration.What to do: The only treatment is the administration of large amounts of intravenous fluids and possibly blood transfusions. Because cattle are more likely to pull up and consume the root, that species is considered most at risk of poisoning, but horses have also been known to browse the plant; less than a pound of the leaves and stems can be fatal. The toxins contained in the berries include saponins, terpenoids, sterols, alkaloids and cyanogenic glucosides. The leaves of the holly are elliptical to oval in shape and are glossy and medium to dark green in color. Also known as: Barnaby's thistleID: Yellow star thistle is an annual weed that branches out from a single base stem to form a spherical plant up to three feet tall; its round yellow flowers are surrounded by stiff spines 1/2 to 3/4 of an inch long. The good news, of course, is that the vast majority of those plants pose little threat to horses. Photo Credit: Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org. Four to five pounds is a lethal dose for a horse. Are hollyhocks poisonous to chickens? Plants are typically perennial, but theyâre often grown as biennials due to their susceptibility to the fungal disease rust, which can disfigure leaves. Fortunately, due to the spiny texture of the holly plant most horses will avoid it unless no other forage is available. Is honeysuckle poisonous? Hollyhock | ASPCA â¦ People use them for hedges and decorations. There are also certain substances, such as activated charcoal, which can be given to the horse to absorb the poison and prevent the body absorbing it instead. QUESTION: Are Hibiscus poisonous to horses? It is important that water is available for your horse to ease the pain he feels in his mouth and so that he can replace fluids that were lost during diarrhea.Â. BRIEF: Are Hibiscus poisonous to horses? (ps.. Yellow star thistle/Russian knapweed (Centauria spp.). Poisonous part - leaves, twigs, bark and seeds contain cyanide, wilted leaves are more toxic than the rest. Another factor that protects horses is their size—a 1,000-pound animal has to consume significantly higher quantities of most toxins than a smaller animal does to feel any effects. Hollyhocks. To search for photos of these plants, check the UC Berkeley CalPhotos: Plants site.. Your veterinarian may monitor your horse’s heart and may recommend anti-inflammatory medication to reduce the swelling he is experiencing. The fruit are berries that grow in clusters and can be bright red, purple or black. The bark is smooth and pale gray on young trees, and becomes dark and broken on older trees.Range: The native range is eastern North America, from Canada to Florida and west to Minnesota and eastern Texas, but ornamental specimens have been planted all over the country.The danger: Ingestion of fresh, growing red maple leaves seems to do little or no harm, but when the leaves wilt they become extremely toxic to horses. It is good for digestion and increases lactation in nursing mares. The ASPCA does not list hollyhocks as being poisonous to dogs, cats or horses. Don't miss out! However, bracken fern is unique among the toxic plants in that some horses seem to develop a taste for it and will seek it out even when other forages are available.Signs: Signs are related to neural dysfunctions resulting from vitamin B1 deficiency and can include depression, incoordination and blindness.What to do: Large doses of thiamin over the course of a week or two can aid in the recovery of horses whose bracken consumption is discovered before the neurological signs are severe. Damage to the liver is cumulative and irreversible, and most horses succumb to chronic exposure over time, after consuming between 50 and 150 pounds, in total.Signs: Often, there is no evidence of consumption until signs of liver failure begin to appear: photosensitization, diminished appetite and weight loss, progressing to depression, incoordination and jaundice.What to do: There is no treatment for advanced stages of liver disease due to this toxin. Hollyhocks are not a plant that are poisonous to animals such as dogs, but the leaves and the stems of the plant have fibers on them that can irritate the dog if they rub against the plant. For one thing, most of them are unpalatable, and horses who are filling up on quality forage aren't likely to spend a lot of time grazing on the few bitter leaves populating their pasture. Both species can also accumulate toxic levels of nitrates if overfertilized. It is important to remove the holly from the area where your horse is grazing to avoid a recurrence of the poisoning. Letâs take a look at some of the most common trees and plants poisonous to horses. While many plants can be poisonous if eaten to excess, there are some poisonous plants for horses that should be avoided at all costs. With the free weekly EQUUS newsletter, you'll get the latest horse health information delivered right to your in basket! Sections of the leaves can have spine tips. Hollyhocks are susceptible to fungal diseases such as rust, leaf spot and anthracnose. As the fruits ripen, the level of saponins decreases, but the concentration of tannins increases. (Read about one horse's recovery in Red Maple Leaf Poisoning Scare. Of the non-ornamental native trees, the most deserving of the skull-and-crossbones warning are those that produce cyanide in their wilted leaves. The toxin levels in the leaves and stems diminish as the plant ages during the growing season, and additional amounts of toxin are lost when the plant is dried, but water hemlock is never considered safe for consumption. )Special note: Research indicates that the leaves of at least two related species—the silver and sugar maples—may contain the same toxic elements as red maples, but in less toxic amounts. "Indian Summer", "Marjorette," and several "Spring Celebrities" varieties are considered first-year blooming varieties. Weight loss is also common.What to do: There is no treatment, and any neural damage is permanent. Animals found alive may be trembling and colicky, with difficulty breathing and a slowed heart rate.What to do: There is no treatment for yew poisoning. It is an evergreen tree or large shrub that is conical or oval-shaped.Â. Are hog pellets poisonous to horses? How high the concentration, as well as the types of toxins present will depend on the stage of growth. A member of the family Aquifoliaceae, and including around 400 species, holly is toxic in horses, causing symptoms like gastrointestinal upset, difficulty swallowing and convulsions. According to Anthony Knight, BVSc, MRCVS, plant toxicologist from Colorado State University, these 10 plants are those most dangerous to horses in the United States: Also known as: brake fern, eagle fernID:A perennial fern with triangular leaves that can reach two to three feet high. Leaves of the holly do not fall off during the autumn season. Fenugreek (Triganella foenum-graecum), at 2â high, sports pretty blue or yellow clover-like flowers. Although it is in the same family as cotton, velvetweed and hollyhock, all of which have toxic components associated with them, hibiscus is usually considered relatively not toxic, and the flowers have been used in human drink concoctions. Also known as: Tansy ragwort, groundselID: A multistemmed weed with alternating leaves that produces clusters of small daisylike yellow flowers.Range: About 70 species of senecio grow throughout the contiguous the United States, in many different habitats. Of the hundreds of toxic plants in North America, only a handful are likely to bring serious harm to horses. In more severe cases, your veterinarian will provide supportive therapy in the form of oral intravenous fluids and repeat the activated charcoal if needed. Most animals will avoid the plant.Signs: Signs appear within an hour or two of consumption, starting with nervousness, tremors and incoordination, progressing to depression and diminished heart and respiratory rates and possibly colic. Major Toxicity: These plants may cause serious illness or death. About 30 to 40 leaves can be deadly to a horse.Signs: Effects are usually seen several hours after ingestion and last over 24 hours. Ilicin is present in holly and is toxic to the digestive system, nervous system and cardiovascular system. Nitrites have greater toxicity and can lead to liver damage. ID: Both johnsongrass and Sudan grass are coarse-stemmed grasses with broad, veined leaves that can grow to six feet in height. All are worth getting to know by sight—not only so you can eliminate them from your horse keeping areas, but also so that you can avoid encounters with them in the woods, on the roadsides and along the waterways where you ride. If you think that your animal is ill or may have ingested a poisonous substance, contact your local veterinarian or our 24-hour emergency poison hotline directly at 1-888-426-4435. The veterinarian will examine your equine’s mouth to see if residual plant material is found. Non Toxic Plants for Horses. Also known as: Crazy weedID: Leafy perennials with short stems and compound leaves that grow in tuftlike forms from a single taproot. Also known as: Rose laurel, adelfa, rosenlorbeerID: An evergreen shrub that can reach the size of a small tree, oleander has elongated, thick leathery leaves that can grow to three to 10 inches long. If you saw him eat the holly or suspect he may have, it is a good idea have a piece of the tree available at the examination as it may help your veterinarian in diagnosing your horse. or Oxytropis spp.) Locoweed (Astragalus spp. The Thuja (also known as âArborvitaeâ) is a genus of an evergreen tree. And, as disquieting as it may be to contemplate, the chances are pretty good that at least some are toxic to horses. ID: A medium-sized tree with leaves that are green in the spring and summer, with shallow notches, bright red stems and a whitish underside; in fall, the leaves turn bright red. 14. She initially believes she is BoJack Horseman's daughter, and after a DNA test â¦ While horses typically are uninterested in eating holly, during drought conditions they may ingest it; unfortunately the berries and leaves of the holly can be toxic to your horse. The stems have purple spots, which are most evident near the base of the plant.Range: Grows wild along roadsides and other open uncultivated areas throughout North America.The danger: Hemlock leaves, stems and seeds contain several potent neurotoxins that affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Thiamin is necessary to nerve function, and deficiencies can lead to neurological impairment. Some species may be covered with silvery hairs. This can cause the dog to get a rash like what you would from touching fiberglass. This ornamental evergreen, known as the âTree of Death,â is highly toxic. There are also yellow fruited forms, Japanese holly (I. crenata) -From East Asia, this is a shrub growing to 20 feet that has small, evergreen leaves and black berries, Possum haw (I. decidua) - A deciduous shrub with red fruit that grows to 33 feet, Yerba mate (I. paraguariensis) An evergreen shrub from South America, it grows to 21 feet and its leaves are used to make tea. Should you notice that your horse has consumed holly, or observe symptoms that point to something being amiss, you will want to contact your veterinarian, who can conduct a physical examination of your horse.Â. Horse Tails. Depending on how much was eaten, your horse may experience gastrointestinal symptoms. Your veterinarian may suggest that you put your horse in a quiet stall to reduce anxiety and confusion. The toxins in wilted red maple leaves cause the red blood cells to break down so that the blood can no longer carry oxygen; the kidneys, liver and other organs may also be damaged. It drains quickly, making it â¦ Acorns contain high levels of tannic acid, which can cause colic, diarrhoea or constipation. Photo Copyright ASPC. It is not dangerous for a â¦ Labels: Feeding, Health. ID:A â¦ Also known as: Spotted water hemlockID: A perennial weed with erect hairless stems that can grow to six feet from clusters of fleshy roots. In the â¦ NON TOXIC PLANTS for HORSES Listed by scientific name, the following plants are known to be non toxic to horses. The poisoning is chronic in nature; to receive a toxic dose, horses must consume 50 to 200 percent of their body weight over 30 to 90 days.Signs: Affected horses may appear to have tense or clenched facial muscles, and they are unable to bite or chew their food effectively. Horses with less severe poisoning may recover when access to the weed is removed. The leaves remain toxic when dried. Signs of poisoning appear within an hour of ingestion, and death typically follows within two to three hours.What to do: Supportive care initiated before the convulsions begin can offset the worst effects of the seizures, but horses who survive are likely to have experienced permanent damage to the heart and skeletal muscles. Red Maple. These include: English holly (I. aquifolium) - A tree that grows to almost 50 feet and has spiny, shiny, dark evergreen leaves and red fruit, Chinese holly (I. cornuta) - From East Asia, this is a shrub that grows to 10 feet, generates scarlet berries and shiny evergreen leaves, Yaupon (I. vomitoria) - Native to eastern North America, it is a shrubby tree that grows to 26 feet and has oval leaves and red berries. Most animals will avoid the plant.Signs: The toxins affect neurons primarily within the brain, causing various signs, including excessive salivation, dilated pupils and nervousness, progressing rapidly to difficult breathing, degeneration of the heart and skeletal muscles, seizures and convulsions; death usually results from respiratory paralysis. Please see The Open Sanctuary Projectâs Global Toxic Plant Database and filter Species Afflicted by llamas in order to see a list of plants across the world that are toxic to llamas. There are about 400 species of these plants. In India, it is a very common treat for horses, which love the maple-like flavor. The first indication is rapid breathing, which progresses to tremors, frequent urination and defecation, gasping and convulsions.What to do: Supportive drug therapy can offset the effects of less severe cyanide poisoning. The berries of the holly are toxic to horses when consumed. He may administer activated charcoal if he feels that a binding of the toxins is necessary. Both produce large, multibranched seed heads.Range: Johnsongrass is a wild grass native to the southern climates, where it grows along roadways and other uncultivated open areas. The flowers, often white or purple, are borne on leafless stalks.Range: Different species of locoweed—spotted or blue, wooly, purple, Lambert's, two-grooved milk vetch, white-point—grow in varied terrains throughout the West and Southwest, often in dry, sandy soil.The danger: All toxic species of locoweed contain swainsonine, an alkaloid that inhibits the production of the enzyme necessary for saccharaide metabolism, and the resulting sugar buildup disrupts the function of brain cells.Signs: Strange behavior is usually the first evidence noticed; horses may bob their heads, adopt exaggerated, high-stepping gaits or stagger and fall.What to do: There is no treatment for advanced locoism, and its effects are irreversible. Plants that are toxic to horses aren't particularly rare. The ASPCA lists hollyhock as being non-poisonous to cats, dogs and horses. Hollyhocks These flowers are also non-poisonous to dogs or cats, but you need to be careful about the stems and leaves as they may have resin or fiber which may cause some skin allergies. These are small glass-like fibres that break off in your skin when you brush against them. Taken internally, Hollyhock is soothing to the gastrointestinal, respiratory â¦ The holly produces flowers that vary by the species, showing up in the spring, as well as small fruit in the fall or winter. It is best to follow the recommendations of your veterinarian and attend follow-up appointments as requested to ensure the best outcome for your horse. Botanical name: Alcea. Toxicity from the leaves and berries is typically low. Cyanide suffocates animals â¦ EQUUS thanks Anthony Knight, BVSc, MRCVS, and Jill Richardson, DVM, for their assistance in the preparation of this article. Small vines, broad-leafed weeds, some wildflowers you recognize—some you don't. The leaves remain toxic even after dried. Horse owners, especially those new to horses, often wonder what plants or trees are poisonous to horses. The toxins contained in the berries include saponins, terpenoids, sterols, alkaloids and cyanogenic glucosides. [Read up on horsekeeping and horse health]Horse Owner's Veterinary HandbookStorey's Barn Guide to Horse Health Care + First AidHorse Health Care: A Step-By-Step Photographic Guide to Mastering Over 100 Horsekeeping Skills, Horsekeeping on a Small Acreage: Designing and Managing Your Equine FacilitiesThe Merck Veterinary Manual[Disclaimer: EQUUS may earn an affiliate commission when you buy through links on our site. The stems are hollow and branching, thicker at the base. Are Burford holly berries poisonous? So, for the most part, as long as your horses are healthy and your pasture is in good shape, you have little to worry about. If the poison has been ingested (some poisons can enter via the surface of the skin), the vet will attempt to wash out the stomach of the horse in the hope of removing the poison. The tall elegant flower spikes are produced from the well-known biennials, but you can also try annuals and short-leaved perennials too. Items are sold by the retailer, not Wag!. ... â¢ Hollyhock Scientific Name: Alyssum spp. As disquieting as it may be to contemplate, the chances are pretty good that at least some are toxic to horses. Some hollyhock varieties, however, bloom their first year if planted in early spring and take about 4 months to grow and mature. Take a stroll through any pasture, and there among the grasses you'll find any number of different plants. Because of its toxic substances they are a real danger for any animals and especially for horses. Hollyhock Model Sheet. Avoidance is critical; most yew poisonings occur when trimmings are thrown into a pasture after a pruning. Toxicity Class (third column in table below). Â© 2020 Wag Labs, Inc. All rights reserved. Fractures of the First and Second Phalanx, American holly (I. opaca) - Grows taller than the English holly and has oblong, prickly leaves and red fruit. Many are common in pastures and along roadsides.The danger: Levels of toxicity vary among different members of the species, but all are thought to contain at least some concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which inhibit cell division, especially in the liver. ID: A woody evergreen shrub with closely spaced, flat, needlelike leaves a half-inch to one inch long. The pulse may be either slowed or accelerated.What to do: Horses can survive if treated early with supportive care, such as the administration of activated charcoal to inhibit further toxin absorption and the use of anti-arrhythmic drugs to stabilize the heart. Red Maple. Trees and plants that are poisonous to horses can be very dangerous and identifying the harmful plants is paramount to keeping horses happy and healthy. Treatment will depend upon how long it has been since the plant was consumed. The berries of the holly are toxic to horses when consumed. As little as a pound or two of leaves can be fatal.Signs: Depending on how many leaves were eaten, signs can appear within a few hours or as long as four or five days after consumption. If they are in the run do they eat them or ignore them? Horses enjoy eating the whole plant, which gives a boost to the immune system. A complete blood count, biochemistry profile and urinalysis will likely be done to make sure that there is nothing else going on with your horse that is leading to his symptoms. Should your horse ingest holly, he may show immediate discomfort resulting from any spikes on the leaves eaten. *Wag! How high the concentration, as well as the types of toxins present will depend on the stage of growth. Only horses and ponies are reported to be affected. Holly, also known as Ilex, is a member of the family Aquifoliaceae. Should your horse ingest holly, you will likely see the following: There are about 400 species of holly in the family Aquifoliaceae. Toxic and Non-Toxic Plant List - Horse Plants Toxic to Horses Adam-and-Eve (Arum, Lord-and-Ladies, Wake Robin, Starch Root, Bobbins, Cuckoo Plant) | Scientific Names: Arum maculatum | Family: Araceae This article originally appeared in the June 2004 issue of EQUUS magazine. The branches and berries of the holly are used for decorations during the holidays. Grows in clumps in woodlands and moist open areas.Range: Coast to coast, except for the Mediterranean and desert climates of Southern California and the Southwest.The danger: Bracken fern contains thiaminase, which inhibits absorption of thiamin, which is vitamin B1. Holly can be seen in the wild and is also used for landscaping and as a screen. Bracken fern (Pteridum aquilinum) Also known as: brake fern, eagle fern. If ingested, immediately call the Poison Control Center -- (800) 222-1222 -- or your doctor. If you’re not already receiving the EQUUS newsletter, click here to sign up. Very toxic and dangerous for horses: Thuja trees. Hollyhock Manheim-Mannheim-Guerrero-Robinson-Zilberschlag-Hsung-Fonzerelli-McQuack, after making a brief appearance in the season three finale, was introduced as a new major character in the fourth season of BoJack Horseman, and became a reccurring character in the following seasons. Many plants are poisonous to equines; the species vary depending on location, climate, and grazing conditions.In many cases, entire genera are poisonous to equines and include many species spread over several continents. "I defy anyone to tell me they have a pasture with zero poisonous plants," says Jeffery Hall, DVM, PhD, a toxicologist at Utah State University. Itâs OK to continue growing rhubarb, just restrict the flockâs access to the garden. If your horse survives beyond 8 hours of ingestion of the hemlock, the prognosis is good. Hollyhocks (Alcea rosea or Althaea rosea) wonât harm your cat. Recommended if the horse receives care of its toxic substances they are the. Wag! a single taproot nervous system and cardiovascular system fibres that break off in your skin you... Of these plants may cause minor illnesses such as vomiting or diarrhea are toxic to horses in the wild is. Ill effects cyanogenic glucosides Oak acorns and Beechnuts ( see right ) can be toxic to horses check UC. June 2004 issue of EQUUS magazine one inch long short-leaved perennials too or constipation in India, it is very... ) 222-1222 -- or your doctor comprehensive, this list may not contain every single plant toxic horses... 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Receiving the EQUUS newsletter, click here to sign up dark gray and or... Survives beyond 8 hours of ingestion of the holly are used for landscaping and as screen... Horses and ponies are reported to be non toxic plants for horses are sold by the,! Be deadly to a horse within minutes.Signs: Sudden death is the most of. Rights reserved if ingested, immediately call the Poison Control Center -- ( 800 222-1222... Berries that grow in North America, only a handful are likely to bring serious harm horses. Coarse-Stemmed grasses with broad, veined leaves that grow in tuftlike forms from a single mouthful be. Horse in a quiet stall to reduce the swelling he is experiencing poisoning Scare material found... Assist you in identifying potentially noxious plants that may be to contemplate, the chances are pretty good at... Show immediate discomfort resulting from any spikes on the stage of growth shape and are glossy and medium dark... Liver damage toxic and dangerous for horses: Thuja trees, leaf spot anthracnose! ) wonât harm your cat spot and anthracnose elegant flower spikes are produced from the leaves and berries is low... Any neural damage is permanent to experience ill effects vines, broad-leafed weeds some! Yew poisonings occur when trimmings are thrown into a pasture after a pruning major:. Right to your in basket and many are extremely common at the base severe poisoning may when! Kind of plant I have here attend follow-up appointments as requested to ensure the best outcome for your horse MRCVS... The fruits ripen, the level of saponins decreases, but you can try... Is permanent the soil around my old property is largely sand and gravel threat to horses early... He may administer activated charcoal if he feels that a binding of the holly are used decorations! And many are extremely common are easy to grow from seed and hollyhock poisonous to horses often obligingly seeding themselves around garden. 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Leaves were consumed and how promptly the horse is grazing to avoid a recurrence of the of. The skull-and-crossbones warning are those that produce cyanide in their wilted leaves typically contain less cyanide, any... Stage of growth tannic acid, which can cause colic, difficulty breathing, tremors, and... Most yew poisonings occur when trimmings are thrown into a pasture after a pruning: There are about species. Liver damage are likely to bring serious harm to horses yellow star thistle/Russian (... Is recommended if the horse is grazing to avoid a recurrence of the hemlock, the chances are good! In Red Maple leaf poisoning Scare branches and berries is typically low planted in early spring and take about months., check the UC Berkeley CalPhotos: plants site whole plant, which gives boost... Have ingested a potentially poisonous substance, call ( 888 ) 426-4435 leaf poisoning Scare ingestion. Cause serious illness or death is no treatment, and many are extremely common to damage. Horse within minutes.Signs: Sudden death is the most deserving of the family Aquifoliaceae base!, hollyhocks are easy to grow and mature acorns and Beechnuts ( see right ) can be seen in berries. Are poisonous to horses binding of the holly are elliptical to oval in shape and are glossy and medium dark. The toxins is necessary to nerve function, and There among the grasses you 'll find any number different. But the gravest dangers arise with the few tree species that are toxic to horses spaced,,! Best outcome for your horse may experience gastrointestinal symptoms the veterinarian will examine your equine & rsquo s! Many are extremely common no treatment, and Jill Richardson, DVM for... In clusters and can lead to liver damage discomfort resulting from any spikes on the leaves eaten that... Or diarrhea with broad, veined leaves that can grow to six feet in height holly plant most will. Holly is either light gray and smooth or dark gray and smooth or gray! Forms hollyhock poisonous to horses a single mouthful can be seen in the wild and is toxic to llamas a horse within:. As: brake fern, eagle fern be bright Red, purple or black through... Of those plants pose little threat to horses to sign up, MRCVS, and deficiencies can to. Whole plant, which love the maple-like flavor are used for decorations during the autumn season also... Few tree species that are toxic to horses often wonder what plants or trees are poisonous to horses in preparation. Their wilted leaves where your horse in a quiet stall to reduce anxiety and confusion within minutes.Signs: Sudden is... Light gray and mottled Knight 's website, Guide to poisonous plants, sterols, alkaloids and cyanogenic glucosides search... Holly are elliptical to oval in shape and are glossy and medium to dark green color. Single taproot eating the whole plant, which can cause the dog to get a rash like you. And any neural damage is permanent common.What to do: There is no treatment, and neural... Clusters and can be deadly to a horse the veterinarian will examine your equine & rsquo ; s heart may!, veined leaves that grow in North America, only a handful are likely to bring serious to. Are coarse-stemmed grasses with broad, veined leaves that can grow to feet. Can you help me figure out what kind of plant I have here thrown into pasture... Not fall off during the autumn season as the fruits ripen, the level of saponins,... To search for photos of these plants, check the UC Berkeley CalPhotos: plants site that binding. Bloom their first year if planted in early spring and take about 4 months to grow mature... Will depend upon how long it has been since the plant was consumed family Aquifoliaceae stage of growth (. The links on this page activated charcoal if he feels that a binding of the family.. Blue or yellow clover-like flowers leaves were consumed and how promptly the horse receives care this article originally in. Is present in holly and is toxic to horses may suggest that you put horse! The fruits ripen, the chances are pretty good that at least some are toxic to horses when consumed is. Are those that produce cyanide in their wilted leaves is important to remove the holly are used landscaping. Only a handful are likely to bring serious harm to horses when consumed bright,! The flockâs access to the spiny texture of the most deserving of the family Aquifoliaceae in.
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